Publications and manuscripts of Jonathan Robert Pool


Jonathan Robert Pool, “Testaro: Efficient Ensemble Testing for Web Accessibility” (presented at ASSETS ’23, 25th International ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Computers and Accessibility, 22–25 October 2023).

Jonathan Robert Pool, “Accessibility Metatesting: Comparing Nine Testing Tools” (presented at Web4All 2023, 20th International Web for All Conference, 30 April 2023).

PanLex and panlingual interactivity

Patrick Westphal, Claus Stadler, and Jonathan Robert Pool, “Countering language attrition with PanLex and the Web of Data” (Semantic Web Journal, 2015, 347–353).

David Kamholz, Jonathan Robert Pool, and Susan M. Colowick, “PanLex: Building a Resource for Panlingual Lexical Translation” (presented at LREC 2014, Language Resources and Evaluation Conference, 2014).

Jonathan Robert Pool, Susan Colowick, and Laura Welcher, “Designing a Panlingual Dictionary” (presentation at 36th Internationalization & Unicode Conference, 23 October 2012).

Jonathan Robert Pool and Susan Colowick, “Projekto Leksilo” (presentation at Esperanto: Alia Verda Movado, 19 June 2011).

Jonathan Robert Pool and Susan Colowick, “PanLex: A Panlingual Lexical Resource” (presentation at DELPH-IN Summit, 26 June 2011).

Jonathan Robert Pool, “Panlingual Globalization” (prepublication version), chapter 6 in The Handbook of Language and Globalization, ed. Nikolas Coupland (Wiley-Blackwell, 2010), pp. 142–161. Other source. Publication version.

Timothy Baldwin, Jonathan Robert Pool, and Susan M. Colowick, “PanLex and LEXTRACT: Translating all Words of all Languages of the World” (Coling 2010: Demonstration Volume, 2010, pp. 37–40). Other source.

Katherine Everitt, Christopher Lim, Oren Etzioni, Jonathan Robert Pool, Susan Colowick, and Stephen Soderland, “Evaluating Lemmatic Communication”, trans-kom, 3, 2010, 70–84.

Jonathan Robert Pool, “Translators in a Global Community” (prepublication version), chapter 4 in The Translator as Mediator of Cultures, ed. Humphrey Tonkin and Maria Esposito Frank (John Benjamins, 2010), pp. 73–85. Presentation slides from Symposium on Translators as Mediators of Cultures, 2006. Other source.

Stephen Soderland, Christopher Lim, Mausam, Bo Qin, Oren Etzioni, and Jonathan Robert Pool, “Lemmatic Machine Translation” (Machine Translation Summit XII, 2009). Other source 1. Other source 2.

Jonathan Robert Pool, “Panlingual Localization” (presentation at Localization Industry Standards Association Berkeley Globalization Conference, 2009).

Martin Hecko, Kinsley Ogunmola, Jonathan Robert Pool, Tim Wong, and Peter Woodman, “The Panlingual Camera Phone” (manuscript, 2007).

Jonathan Robert Pool, “Panlingual Dogfood” (manuscript, 2006).

Jonathan Robert Pool, “Applying Conceptual Analysis in the 21st Century: Design of a Computerized System for Global Translingual Communication”. In The CONTA Conference: Proceedings of the Conference on Conceptual and Terminological Analysis of the Social Sciences, ed. Fred W. Riggs (Frankfurt am Main: INDEKS Verlag, 1982), pp. 85-99.

Language design

Jonathan Robert Pool, “Esperanto: Utopian Flop or Practical Success?” (Berkeley Town House, 4 September 2013; presentation slides).

Adam Wyner, Krasimir Angelov, Guntis Barzdins, Danica Damljanovic, Brian Davis, Norbert Fuchs, Stefan Hoefler, Ken Jones, Kaarel Kaljurand, Tobias Kuhn, Martin Luts, Jonathan Robert Pool, Mike Rosner, Rolf Schwitter, and John Sowa, “On Controlled Natural Languages: Properties and Prospects”, Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence, 5972 (2010), 281–289. Other source.

Jonathan Robert Pool, “Can Controlled Languages Scale to the Web?” (CLAW 2006 at AMTA 2006: 5th International Workshop on Controlled Language Applications, 2006). Other source 1. Other source 2. Presentation slides.

Jonathan Robert Pool, “Web-Scale Expressivity and Ambiguity in a Translation Interlingua: The DLT Intermediate Language” (manuscript, 2006). PDF

Jonathan Robert Pool, “Controlling Lexical Ambiguity: Ontologies for the Semantic Web” (presentation at University of Washington, Linguistics 580E, Lexical Ambiguity, 2006).

Jonathan Robert Pool, “Linguistic Exploitation”, International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 103 (1993), 31-55.

Jonathan Robert Pool and Bernard Grofman, “Linguistic Artificiality and Cognitive Competence”, in Interlinguistics: Aspects of the Science of Planned Languages, ed. Klaus Schubert (Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 1989), pp. 145-156.

Jonathan Robert Pool, “Lingviko, Politikiko kaj Ekblek” (69a Universala Kongreso de Esperanto, 1984; introduction to lecture on work reported in “Linguistic Artificiality and Cognitive Competence”, 1989). Republished in Lingua, politica, cultura: Serta gratulatoria in honorem Renato Corsetti, ed. Federico Gobbo (New York: Mondial, 2016), pp. 75–84.

Jonathan Robert Pool and Bernard Grofman, “Language as Political Control: Newspeak Revisited”, delivered at 1984 Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Washington, D.C., 30 August to 2 September, 1984.

Jonathan Robert Pool, “Two Different Languages” (manuscript, 1961).


Jonathan Robert Pool and S. M. Colowick, “Syntactic Disambiguation for the Semantic Web” (SAAKM 2007: Semantic Authoring, Annotation and Knowledge Markup Workshop, 2007). Other source 1. Other source 2. Other source 3.

Jonathan Robert Pool and S. M. Colowick, “Disambiguating for the Web: A Test of Two Methods” (K-CAP 2007: Fourth International Conference on Knowledge Capture, 2007). Other source. Prior version’s presentation slides.

Jonathan Robert Pool, “Collaborative Human-Machine Disambiguation” (presentation at University of Washington Department of Computer Science and Engineering, 2005).

Jonathan Robert Pool, Ambiguity: Some Bibliographical Notes (2005).

Jonathan Robert Pool, “Ambiguity Control in Human-Machine Multiagent Systems: State of the Art” (manuscript, 2004).

Language policy and language choice

Jonathan Robert Pool and Mark Fettes, “The Challenge of Interlingualism: A Research Invitation”, Esperantic Studies, 10 (Autumn 1998), 1-3. HTML version. Other source.

Jonathan Robert Pool, “Esperanto Now!” (incomplete manuscript, 1998).

Jonathan Robert Pool, “Optimal Language Regimes for the European Union”, International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 121 (1996), 159-179. Also in grkg/Humankybernetik, 36 (1995).

Jonathan Robert Pool, “The Multilingual Election Problem”, Journal of Theoretical Politics, 4 (1992), 31-52.

Jonathan Robert Pool, “Multilingualism versus Language Policy: Alternative Models for the EC”, presentation at Multilingualism in Europe and the US: A Communications Challenge for Transatlantic Relations and Global Business, 19 November 1992, Washington, D.C.

Reinhard Selten and Jonathan Robert Pool, “The Distribution of Foreign Language Skills as a Game Equilibrium”, in Game Equilibrium Models, ed. Reinhard Selten, vol. 4, Social and Political Interaction (Berlin: Springer, 1991), pp. 64-87.

Jonathan Robert Pool, “The Official Language Problem”, American Political Science Review, 85 (1991), 495-514.

Jonathan Robert Pool and Brian McFann, “The Language Auction: A Nondiscriminatory Method of Choosing Official Languages”, Language and Society Papers, LD13 (1991). Delivered at International Symposium on Linguistic Human Rights, Tallinn, Estonia, 12-15 October 1991.

Jonathan Robert Pool, “The World Language Problem”, Rationality and Society, 3 (1991), 78-105.

Jonathan Robert Pool, “Three Perspectives on Language and Politics”, American Political Science Review, 85 (1991), 636–637.

Jonathan Robert Pool, “Language Regimes and Political Regimes”, chapter 13 in Language Policy and Political Development, ed. Brian Weinstein (Norwood, NJ: Ablex, 1990), pp. 241-261.

Jonathan Robert Pool, “A Tale of Two Tongues” (unpublished essay, 1989).

Jonathan Robert Pool, “La nuna stato de la lingvoplaniko”, delivered at Konferenco pri Esperantologio, Rotterdam, 29 July 1988. Revised and reprinted in Akademiaj studoj 1988-1990, ed. Rüdiger Eichholz (Bailieboro, Ontario: Esperanto Press, 1990), pp. 7-15.

Jonathan Robert Pool (ed.), “Linguistic Inequality”, special issue of Language Problems and Language Planning, 11 (1, 1987).

Jonathan Robert Pool, “Thinking about Linguistic Discrimination”, Language Problems and Language Planning, 11 (1, 1987), 3-21.

Selma K. Sonntag and Jonathan Robert Pool, “Linguistic Denial and Linguistic Self-Denial: American Ideologies of Language”, Language Problems and Language Planning, 11 (1, 1987), 46-65.

Jonathan Robert Pool and Susan Dwyer-Shick, “The Language of Language Law”, delivered at 1986 Annual Meeting of the Law and Society Association, Chicago, 29 May to 1 June, 1986.

Jonathan Robert Pool, “Optimal Strategies in Linguistic Games”, in The Fergusonian Impact, ed. Joshua A. Fishman, Michael Clyne, Mohamed Abdelaziz, Andrée Tabouret-Keller, and Bh. Krishnamurti (The Hague: Mouton, 1986), vol. 2, pp. 157-171.

Jonathan Robert Pool, “The Pure Theory of Language Conflict”, delivered at 1986 Annual Meeting of The American Political Science Association, Washington, 28–31 August, 1986.

Jonathan Robert Pool, “Thinking about the Optimal Number of Languages” (comment), Politics and the Life Sciences, 4 (1, 1985), 14-17.

Thomas Reese and Jonathan Robert Pool, “Guide to Information Resources in Language Planning”, in Language Planning: An Introduction, by Carol M. Eastman (San Francisco: Chandler & Sharp, 1983), pp. 241-253. Earlier version in Language Planning Newsletter, 5 (2, 1979), 1-3, 10-12.

Reinhard Selten and Jonathan Robert Pool, “Ĉu Mi Lernu Esperanton? Enkonduko en la Teorion de Lingvaj Ludoj” (Symmetric Equilibria in Linguistic Games)”, Nr. 112, Working Papers, Institute of Mathematical Economics, Universität Bielefeld, March, 1982. Reprinted in Interlingvistikaj Kontribuaĵoj/Beiträge zur Interlinguistik, ed. Alicia Sakaguchi (Paderborn: Esperanto-Centro e.V., Abteilung Verlag, 1981), pp. 62-117.

Jonathan Robert Pool, “The Economics of Artificial Languages: Thoughts on the Problem of Cost Minimization”, in Angewandte Soziolinguistik, ed. Matthias Hartig (Tübingen: Gunter Narr Verlag, 1981), pp. 155-164. Abridged version of “The Economics of Artificial Languages: An Exploration in Cost Minimization”, paper delivered at Fachtagung Angewandte Soziolinguistik, Universität Paderborn, June, 1980.

Jonathan Robert Pool, “Sprachliche Gleichheit, sprachliche Ungleichheit und Sprachdiskriminierung: Begriffe und Messung”, Grundlagenstudien aus Kybernetik und Geisteswissenschaft, 22 (1981), 69-82.

Jonathan Robert Pool, “La ekonomiaj avantaĝoj de planlingvo: Decidteoria perspektivo”, Eŭropa Dokumentaro, 30 (1981), 21-27. Version delivered at 3-a Internacia Konference pri Esperantologio, Stockholm, 2–9 August, 1980.

Jonathan Robert Pool, “Whose Russian Language? Problems in the Definition of a Linguistic Identity”, ch. 28 in Ethnic Russia in the USSR: The Dilemma of Dominance, ed. Edward Allworth (New York: Pergamon, 1980), 237-248.

Jonathan Robert Pool, “Lingva Egaleco, Lingva Malegaleco, kaj Lingva Diskriminacio: Problemoj de Konceptado kaj Mezurado”, Eŭropa Dokumentaro, 28 (1980), 46-57. Version delivered at 65-a Universala Kongreso de Esperanto, Stockholm, 2–9 August, 1980.

Jonathan Robert Pool, “Bazaj ecoj de la lingvopolitiko”, in Miscellanea Interlinguistica, ed. Szerdahelyi István (Budapest: Tankönyvkiadó, 1980), 101–106.

Jonathan Robert Pool, “Language Planning and Identity Planning”, International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 20 (1979), 5-21.

Jonathan Robert Pool, “Soviet Language Planning: Goals, Results, Options”, chap. 7 in Soviet Nationality Policies and Practices, ed. Jeremy R. Azrael (New York: Praeger, 1978), 223-249. Reprinted as chap. 14 in The Soviet Nationality Reader: The Disintegration in Context, ed. Rachel Denber (Boulder, CO: Westview, 1992), pp. 331-352.

Jonathan Robert Pool, “Elementary Models for Solving the Problem of Linguistic Diversity”, delivered at 5th International Congress of Applied Linguistics, Montréal, August, 1978.

Jonathan Robert Pool, “Modeloj por Solvi la Lingvan Problemon” (incomplete manuscript, 1978).

Jonathan Robert Pool, “Will the Real Russian Language Please Stand Up?”, delivered at the colloquium “Ethnic Russia: Undergoing an Identity Crisis?”, Columbia University, New York, 5–6 May 1978.

Jonathan Robert Pool, “The Politics of Language Planning”, delivered at 10th World Congress of the International Political Science Association, Edinburgh, U.K., 16–21 August, 1976. Reprinted as Working Paper 87, International Studies Association, Comparative Interdisciplinary Studies Section (Pittsburgh: University Center for International Studies, University of Pittsburgh, October 1976).

Jonathan Robert Pool, “Developing the Soviet Turkic Tongues: The Language of the Politics of Language”, Slavic Review, 35 (1976), 425-442.

Jonathan Robert Pool, “The Limits of Language Planning: Lessons for and from the Soviet Union”, delivered at Eighth National Convention of the American Association for the Advancement of Slavic Studies, St. Louis, Missouri, 6–9 October, 1976.

Jonathan Robert Pool, “Some Observations on Language Planning in Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan”, Language Planning Newsletter, 2 (2, 1976), 3-6.

Jonathan Robert Pool, “Impressions of Sociolinguistics in the Soviet Union”, Sociolinguistics Newsletter, VII (1, 1976), 1-5.

Jonathan Robert Pool, “La Estonteco de CED: Provizora Raporto”, report submitted to Universala Esperanto-Asocio, 20 March, 1975.

Jonathan Robert Pool, “Language and Loyalty”, delivered at VIIIth World Congress of Sociology, Toronto, 18–23 August, 1974.

Jonathan Robert Pool, “Mass Opinion on Language Policy: The Case of Canada”, in Advances in Language Planning, ed. Joshua A. Fishman (The Hague: Mouton, 1974), 481-492. Earlier version in Language Planning: Current Issues and Research, ed. Joan Rubin and Roger Shuy (Washington: Georgetown University Press, 1973), 55-66.

Jonathan Robert Pool, review of Language Conflict and National Development: Group Politics and National Language Policy in India, by Jyotirindra Das Gupta, and National Communication and Language Policy in India, by Baldev Raj Nayar, American Journal of Sociology, 78 (6, 1973), 1590–1593.

Jonathan Robert Pool, “Language and Political Integration: Canada as a Test of Some Hypotheses”, Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Political Science, The University of Chicago, September, 1971.

Jonathan Robert Pool, “National Development and Language Diversity”, in Advances in the Sociology of Language, ed. Joshua A. Fishman (The Hague: Mouton, 1972), vol. 2, 213-230. Earlier versions in La Monda Lingvo-Problemo, 1 (1969), 140-156, and Sociologische Gids, 17 (1970), 86-101. Translation of 1969 version published as “Sviluppo nazionale e diversità linguistica”, Notiziario COSV, IV:25–26 (1973), XIV-XXIII.

Jonathan Robert Pool, “Esperanto”, Türk Dili, 176 (1966), 563–565.

Jonathan Robert Pool, “Grading: A Volunteer Dilemma” (Peace Corps Volunteer, IV:7, May 1966, 10–11).

Jonathan Robert Pool, Esperanto Öğrenelim (İstanbul: Habora Kitabevi, 1966).

Jonathan Robert Pool, Yabancı Dil Sömürücülüğü (Yön, 8 October 1965, 2).

Jonathan Robert Pool, “Dear friends, relatives, and colleagues” (letter from a Peace Corps language teacher in Turkey), 8 June 1965.

Language technology

Jonathan Robert Pool, “Interlingual Annotation for Machine Translation” (presentation at University of Washington Machine Translation Reading Group, 2006).

Jonathan Robert Pool, “WordNets: What and Why?” (presentation at University of Washington Computational Linguistics Group, 2005).

Jonathan Robert Pool, “Building a Grammar-Matrix-Based HPSG Grammar of Esperanto: Issues for Discussion” (notes from mini-presentation at University of Washington, Linguistics 567, Grammar Engineering, 2005).

Christie Evans and Jonathan Robert Pool, “Interlingual Technology Preview” (brief prepared for Esperantic Studies Foundation, 2003).

Christie Evans and Jonathan Robert Pool, “Interlingual Technology Overview” (presentation to Esperantic Studies Foundation, 2003).


Jonathan Robert Pool, “Modeling Mediation” (unpublished manuscript, 1981).

Bernard Grofman and Jonathan Robert Pool, “How to Make Cooperation the Optimizing Strategy in a Two-Person Game”, Journal of Mathematical Sociology, 5 (1977), 173–186.

Jonathan Robert Pool, “Coalition Formation in Small Groups with Incomplete Communication Networks”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 34 (1976), 82-91.

Jonathan Robert Pool (ed.), Computer-Assisted Instruction in Political Science (Washington: American Political Science Association, 1976): editor and contributor. Contributions: Paul Siegel and Jonathan Robert Pool, “Authoring Made Easier: How CAI packages Work”, ch. 3; Jonathan Robert Pool, “Teaching Principles and Methods with CAI”, ch. 6.

Theodore J. Lowi, Benjamin Ginsberg, Elliot J. Feldman, Gregory J. Nigosian, Jonathan Robert Pool, Allan Rosenbaum, Carlyn Rottsolk, Margaret Stapleton, Judith Van Herik, Julia Vitullo-Martin, and Thomas Vitullo-Martin, Poliscide (New York: Macmillan, 1976; Lanham, Maryland: University Press of America, 1990).

Jonathan Robert Pool and Raymond R. Corrado, “Support and Alienation vis-à-vis the Political Community: Attitudes toward the Constitutional Options in Wales and Quebec”, delivered to the Research Group on Political Alienation and Support, Stanford, California, 27–30 May 1976.

Jonathan Robert Pool, “Three Subcultures: Geographical Variation in the Structure of German Opinion” (manuscript, 1976).

Bernard Grofman and Jonathan Robert Pool, “Bayesian Models for Iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma Games”, General Systems, XX (1975), 185–194.

Jonathan Robert Pool and Bernard Grofman, “Computer Programs as a Means of Efficiency and Control in Cross-Cultural Experimental Games”, Experimental Study of Politics, IV:2 (1975), 27–57.

Jonathan Robert Pool and Bernard Grofman, “Response to Partial Tit-for-Tat Strategies in the Prisoner’s Dilemma Game” (manuscript, 1975).

Jonathan Robert Pool, “Trip Report: One-Month Familiarization Visit to the USSR (Moscow, Baku, Ashkhabad), 30 March to 30 April, 1975, Sponsored by the National Academy of Sciences of the USA and the Academy of Sciences of the USSR” (manuscript, 1975).

Jonathan Robert Pool and Bernard Grofman, “Flexible Computer-Based Games in Training and Research”, delivered at 13th Annual National Gaming Council Symposium, Pittsburgh, 8–10 October 1974.

Jonathan Robert Pool, “The Discriminability and Dimensionality of Political Support: Some Results from a German Pilot Study”, delivered to Research Group on Political Alienation and Support, Chicago, 29 August 1974.

June Starr and Jonathan Robert Pool, “The Impact of a Legal Revolution in Rural Turkey”, Law and Society Review, 8 (Summer 1974), 533–560. Abstract. Full text.

Jonathan Robert Pool and Edward Nicholas Muller III, Opinionometer documentation (“The Opinionometer: Purposes, Design, and Operation”, “Vorrichtung zur Messung, Anzeige und Registrierung von Meinungen”), 1974–1976.

Jonathan Robert Pool, “The Usefulness of Quantitative Methods in Political Science: the Case of Scaling and the United States Supreme Court” (B.A. thesis, Harvard University, 1964). PT

Jonathan Robert Pool, “Weights, Measures, and Numbers” (manuscript, 1961).


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